Malala Yousafzai is most famous for her fight for the right of girls all over the world to get an education. When she was a girl in the Swat Valley of Pakistan, she watched the Taliban slowly creep into her town. She wrote secretly for a BBC blog about life under Taliban rule. Around her girl's schools were being forced to closed or bombed. She spoke up for the right for girls to receive an education. The Taliban shot her on her way home from school. But that did not stop her. After recovering in a hospital in the U.K., she still fights for the rights of girls around the world to get an education. She even started attending university herself this year. She also won the Nobel Peace Prize for her work, the youngest recipient of the award. I was very fortunate to see her speak at DePauw University last year.
I recommend reading her book, I Am Malala. There is also a documentary called He Named me Malala which covers the same material but with wonderful animations and clips of Malala's family and even her meeting the Queen of England.